Pneumonia Following Symptomatic Influenza Infection Among Nicaraguan Children Before and After Introduction of the Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine


Influenza is associated with primary viral and secondary bacterial pneumonias; however, the dynamics of this relationship in populations with varied levels of pneumococcal vaccination remain unclear. We conducted nested matched case-control studies in 2 prospective cohorts of Nicaraguan children aged 2–14 years: 1 before pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction (2008–2010) and 1 following introduction and near universal adoption (2011–2018). The association between influenza and pneumonia was similar in both cohorts. Participants with influenza (across types/subtypes) had higher odds of developing pneumonia in the month following influenza infection. These findings underscore the importance of considering influenza in interventions to reduce global pneumonia burden.

The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Jon Zelner
Jon Zelner
Assistant Professor