This study examines the relationship between wealth and HIV infection in Sub-Saharan Africa to determine whether and how this relationship has varied over time, within and across countries, by gender, and urban environment. The analysis draws on DHS and AIS data from 27 Sub-Saharan African countries, which spanned the 14 years between 2003 and 2016. We first use logistic regression analyses to assess the relationship between individual wealth, HIV infection and gender by country and year stratified on urban environment. We then use meta-regression analyses to assess the relationship between country level measures of wealth and the odds of HIV infection by gender and individual level wealth, stratified on urban environment. We find that there is a persistent and positive relationship between wealth and the odds of HIV infection across countries, but that the strength of this association has weakened over time. The rate of attenuation does not appear to differ between urban/rural strata. Likewise, we also find that these associations were most pronounced for women and that this relationship was persistent over the study period and across urban and rural strata. Overall, our findings suggest that the relationship between wealth and HIV infection is beginning to reverse and that in the coming years, the relationship between wealth and HIV infection in Sub-Saharan Africa may more clearly mirror the predominant global picture.