Influenza

Pneumonia Following Symptomatic Influenza Infection Among Nicaraguan Children Before and After Introduction of the Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine

Influenza is associated with primary viral and secondary bacterial pneumonias; however, the dynamics of this relationship in populations with varied levels of pneumococcal vaccination remain unclear. We conducted nested matched case-control studies …

Individual-level Association of Influenza Infection With Subsequent Pneumonia: A Case-control and Prospective Cohort Study

Background: Pneumonia is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Influenza may result in primary pneumonia or be associated with secondary bacterial pneumonia. While the association with secondary pneumonia has been established ecologically, …

Inequality in acute respiratory infection outcomes in the United States: A review of the literature and its implications for public health policy and practice

Seasonal and pandemic respiratory viruses such as influenza and the novel coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) currently sweeping the globe have often been described as ‘equal opportunity infectors’, implying little socioeconomic disparity in susceptibility. …

Preferential observation of large infectious disease outbreaks leads to consistent overestimation of intervention efficacy

Data from infectious disease outbreaks in congregate settings are often used to elicit clues about which types of interventions may be useful in other facilities. This is commonly done using before-and-after comparisons in which the infectiousness of …

Effects of Sequential Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Vaccination on Antibody Waning

Background: Antibody waning following influenza vaccination has been repeatedly evaluated, but waning has rarely been studied in the context of longitudinal vaccination history. Methods: We developed a Bayesian hierarchical model to assess the …

The Household Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Study: Lack of Antibody Response and Protection Following Receipt of 2014–2015 Influenza Vaccine

Background: Antigenically drifted A(H3N2) viruses circulated extensively during the 2014–2015 influenza season. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was low and not significant among outpatients but in a hospitalized population was 43%. At least one study …

Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness in the 2014–2015 Season for Children 2–17 Years by Vaccine Type: US Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network

Background. Due to the lack of effectiveness of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) against pandemic H1N1 virus in children during 2013–14, the US Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness (VE) Network expanded enrollment of children during 2014–15 to …

Risk of influenza after Previous Acute Respiratory Illness in a Cohort of Households with Children

Background. Understanding interactions between the agents that cause respiratory infections can provide valuable insights into pathogenesis of acute respiratory illness (ARI). Viral-bacterial interactions are well studied, particularly influenza and …