Pneumonia

Pneumonia Following Symptomatic Influenza Infection Among Nicaraguan Children Before and After Introduction of the Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine

Influenza is associated with primary viral and secondary bacterial pneumonias; however, the dynamics of this relationship in populations with varied levels of pneumococcal vaccination remain unclear. We conducted nested matched case-control studies …

Individual-level Association of Influenza Infection With Subsequent Pneumonia: A Case-control and Prospective Cohort Study

Background: Pneumonia is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Influenza may result in primary pneumonia or be associated with secondary bacterial pneumonia. While the association with secondary pneumonia has been established ecologically, …